Hydrogeochemistry and Bacteriological Assessment of Surface Water Resources Contamination in Nnewi And Environs
Publication Date : 08/02/2021
Detailed geological descriptions, geochemical and bacteriological analyses of surface water resources in the Nnewi area of Anambra State formed the basis for the assessment of water resources contamination and the implications for public health. Thirteen surface water samples were collected from the three major drainage systems in the area and subjected to microbiological and physico-chemical analyses, to determine the coliform counts, as well as concentration of the dissolved constituents. Results of the bacteriological analysis revealed consistently high coliform counts that ranged between 1500 and 6100 c/u/ml. The observed high coliform bacteria count in the samples clearly indicates pollution probably from sewage effluents, pit latrines and/or from solid waste disposal. Physical and chemical analysis of the water samples show that all the samples have low pH values (5-7) and permissible ranges of Electrical Conductivity (EC), Hardness, Total dissolved solid (T.D.S) and dissolved oxygen. Concentrations of the major cations and anions (K, Na, CA, Mg, Fe, S, Cl, NO3) are all low and within permissible limits. However, the samples have abnormally high concentration of sulphate (11 to 106) and Lead (.0.01mg/l). The abnormal sulphate concentration may be a reflection of contamination from the Ameki Formation and/or poor sewage disposal, while the high lead values may be attributed to human/industrial activities going on within the commercial town of Nnewi. Lead poisoning can affect the function and structure of the kidney, bone, central nervous system, and hematopoietic systems. In the light of these findings, the Anambra State Environmental Protection Agency (ANSEPA) is advised to embark on serious public awareness campaign on how to manage wastes. This should be backed up with effective operations strategy and strong Government support. Strict laws on waste management should be promulgated and directed at industries, hospitals, schools, markets, and residential areas within and around the Nnewi commercial area.
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