Odunze-Akasiugwu, Onyinye Shirley , Obi, Gordian Chuks.
Page No : 1-12
The Ameke Abam-Ebenebe Sand Ridge, SouthEastern Nigeria: A Fluvio-Deltaic Deposit
The Ameke Abam-Ebenebe sand ridge is the most prominent linear sand body within the present landscape
of southeastern Nigeria. The ridge extends laterally for over 150km between the alluvial plains of the Cross
River and the Niger River in southeastern Nigeria. It protrudes up to 600 meters above sea level in the vicinity
of Umunze. Topographic analysis reveals that the morphology of the sand ridge is consistent with the
definition of a cuesta. The sand body is sub-parallel to the Enugu Cuesta and to the present Nigerian
Coastline. These geomorphological parameters provide the first indication of the influence of strong tidal
currents in the formation of the sand ridge. Lithofacies and textural analyses reveal that the ridge is composed
of fine to very coarse-grained/pebbly, moderately well-sorted sand associated with various types of current-
and tide-generated sedimentary structures. Analysis of the grain-size distribution plots indicates that the
sands accumulated in a fluvio-deltaic environment (a zone lying between the marine and sub aerial portion
of the delta). Pebble form indices indicate that the sand ridge was constructed in a coastal environment, in a
zone of interaction between wave and fluvial processes.
Olisah, M.C, Meludu S.C, Dioka C.E, Onah C.E.
Page No : 13-17
Effect of Exposure of Formaldehyde Vapours on Some Oxidative Stress Markers, Total Protein and Albumin in Albino Rats
Human exposure to formaldehyde is associated with multiple adverse effects. Its exposure may cause
oxidative stress in some vital organs like liver, kidney, lungs and cardiac functions. This study was aimed to
assess the effect of formaldehyde exposure to some oxidative stress markers, total protein and albumin in
albino rats. Thirty male Albino Wistar rats weighing 120g – 140g were randomly divided into 3 groups: group
A (control group), Group B (exposed to 100 ppm of formaldehyde for 4 weeks), Group C (exposed 200 ppm
of formaldehyde for 4 weeks). The animals were exposed to formaldehyde vapors 6 hours per day using an
inhalation chamber. They were sedated with chloroform after 4 weeks and 4 ml of blood samples collected
for biochemical analysis using standard spectrophotometric methods. The levels of MDA were significantly
higher in exposed subjects (the two weeks and four weeks post exposure (p < 0.05) when compared with the
control, Also, the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were
significantly lower in exposed subjects (the two weeks and four weeks post exposure (p 0.05).This findings suggest that inhalation of formaldehyde vapors may
induce oxidative stress.
Ukpaka, Chukwujekwu Gratius.
Page No : 18-27
Proximate analysis and utility indices of some common vegetables of South East Nigeria
Analysis of proximate Composition and utility indices of some common vegetables of South East Nigeria was
carried on between 2017 and 2018. The aim was to ascertain the core nutritional capacity of our vegetables
and their wholistic Economic relevances. Proximate methods after (AOAC, 1984) which included Differential
method (Carbohydrates), Soxhlet fat extraction method (fat), sample digestion using concentrated sulphuric
acid in the presence of a metallic catalyst (protein) oven drying methods for (moisture content) etcetera were
employed. One hundred and fifty questionnaires with reliability and validity established were distributed
amongst staff and students of COOU (Uli and Igbariam), NAU (Awka) Oko and Nsugbe at 30 per institution.
At the end of the analysis, it was ascertained that Pterocarpus soyaxica (oha) had the highest carbohydrate
(68.35) and fat content (11.65); Talinum triangulare (Gbolodi) had the highest ash content (26.75);
Gongronema latifolium (utazi) had the highest protein content (8.23); Murraya koenigii (curry) had the
highest fibre content while Amaranthus hybridus (Green amaranth) had the highest moisture content (29.15).
The woody vegetable species (perennials-like Pterocarpus soyaxica and Pterocarpus santalinoides
(nturukpa) had the highest utility indices (+7) as opposed to the herbaceous species (mostly annuals and
biennials (+4) that had the greater numerical superiority. A major challenge we have apart from
devegetation, is devising a scientific means of preservation of our vegetables so they can be safely available
all the year round (all seasons availability).
Ukpaka, Chukwujekwu Gratius.
Page No : 28-37
Phytochemical Examination and a few botanical attributes of some important vegetables common to South East Nigeria
Scientific studies on Phytochemical examination and botanical attributes of some common vegetable crops
of South East Nigeria was carried on between 2017 and 2018. The objective was to ascertain the unique
attributes of these species particularly their relevance as herbal remedies. Alkaloids, Flavonoids, cardiac
glycosides, Tannin, Phytate, Phenol, Anthocyanins and Steroid concentrations were all determined using
procedures like Follins Dennis (1974); Young and Greaves (1940); Gravimetric method (Harbone, 1973);
Spectrophotometic methods etcetera. At the end of the studies, it was found out that the dominant
phytochemicals found in most of our vegetables include: cardiac glycosides, (194.82) Saponins, (151.80),
Tannins (128.52) Flavonoids (112.84) while the least were Phytate, (8.13), Phenol (31.88) and Anthocyanins
(31.89). vernonia amygdalina is one vegetable that has the highest phenol (3.421), Saponin (28.00), Cardiac
glycoside (23.69) and Phytate (1.27) in this work. Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum had the
highest steroid content in this work (5.009 and 5.097) respectively). Also Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimun
gratissimun again recorded the highest content of Anthocyanin (3.370 and 3.762) respectively. As far as
medicinal relevance is concerned therefore, our lead vegetables should be Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimun
gratissimum, Gongronema latifolium and Piper guineense as far as this work is concerned. For Botanical
attributes, those of vegetables are not very outstanding unlike Trees and Shrubs. This notwithstanding, most
were annual forbs with yellowish flowers. Sustainability is the key in the overall development and utilization
of our vegetables!
Onyemesili, O. C.
Page No : 38-63
Lithofacies and Depositional Environments of Hydrocarbon Reservoir of The Ludo Oil Field in The Coastal Swamp II Depo-Belt, Niger Delta, Nigeria
The Paleocene marine transgression marked an important stage in the evolution of the Niger Delta. The
transgressive event resulted in the southward progradation of the Niger Delta sediments into the Equatorial
Atlantic Ocean (Arua, 1980, Obi et. al., 2003, Oboh-Ikuenobe et. al 2005). The sediment build-up was
accompanied by growth fault tectonics normal to the direction of the progradation, resulting to the
formation of parallel, fault-bound Northern, Ugheli, Central Swamp I, Central Swamp II Coastal Swamp I,
Coastal Swamp II and the offshore depo-belts that are successively younger from north to south (Ekweozor
and Daukoru, 1992; Fig. 1). Each depo-belt contains three thick rock units, which from shallowest to the
deepest include (i) fluviatile sand belonging to the Benin Formation, (ii) interbedded sand and shale of the
marginal marine-shallow marine Agbada Formation and (iii) marine shale representing the Akata Formation
(Reyment, 1965 and Nwajide, 2013). The present study focused on the LUDO Oil field that is located within
the Coastal Swamp II depo-belt. The oil field forms part of a north-south trending group of oil fields in the
eastern part of the Niger Delta. It contains a single oil reservoir that is buried to a depth of over 8,500 ft.
Mgbenu, Chukwuma Nnaemeka, Obi, G.C., Odunze-Akasiugwu, S.O..
Page No : 64-74
ECONOMIC POTENTIALS OF SANDSTONE DEPOSITS IN ANAMBRA STATE SOUTHEAST NIGERIA
This work focused on the characterization and assessment of the economic potential of sand deposits in Anambra State. It was undertaken to determine the potential of the sand for use in glass and solar panel manufacture. Samples collected from quarries at Agu-Awka, Ishiagu, Nimo, Umuoru-Uga and River Awdaw channel at Amaokpala were texturally and chemically analyzed. Result of sand-size analysis of the samples revealed that 85.7-95% of the samples were retained within the 0.125-0.5 mm sieve meshes. This range of values falls within the sand-size threshold suitable for the manufacture of glass wares. Result of X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that SiO2 percent ranged between 93.87 and 98.01, followed by Al2O3 (0.94-1.84), Fe2O3 (0.367-1.681), TiO2 (0.23-1.05), Cr2O3 (0.025-0.042), CuO (0.019-0.039), K2O (0.001-0.38). The very high concentration of silica shows that with very minor beneficiation, all the sample can be employed in the manufacture of glass and solar panels. These findings provide basis for investments in commercial silica sand and thus herald a new dawn of business opportunities in Anambra State.
Linus.O. Ezenweke, E.C. Okeke.
Page No : 75-85
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF 4-BENZOYL-5-PRAZOLONE OF 2-AMINO BENZOIC ACID ( A SCHIFF BASE LIGAND) AND ITS COMPLEXES WITH SOME METALS IN THE FIRST TRANSITION SERIES
Reports and experience have shown that causative organisms for various illnesses develop resistance to drugs that are used for their
treatment with time. This has necessitated research for new and potent drugs. Consequently in this research, a Schiff base ligand
(4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone of 2-amino benzoic acid) and its complexes with Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu have been synthesized and
characterized using Ir, Uv and Mass spectroscopic methods. Results showed that the mole ratio of the ligand to the metal ion in the
complex is 1:1. This means that the general formula of the metal complex is M-L, where M is the metal and L is the Schiff base
ligand. Results of physical tests (solubility and melting) showed that the Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were soluble
in polar solvents like di methyl sulphur oxide and dimethyl fluoride but insoluble in non-polar solvents like N-hexane and diethyl
ether, the metal complexes were more stable to heat than the Schiff base ligand and the metals were comparatively more stable
down the group. Results of antibacterial tests showed that the Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were active against the
growth of Staphylococuss aureus, Bacillus subtiles, Pseudononas aeruginosa and Escherichia coil and the metal complexes were
more active against the growth of the organisms than the Schiff base ligand.
Ukpaka Chukwujekwu Gratius .
Page No : 86-95
Ornamental Plants of Anambra State
The scientific study of ornamental plants of Anambra State was carried on between April and September,
2019. The aim of the study was to identify the ornamental plants of Anambra State, the dominant growth
forms involved, and the plant parts that give the principal (key) Aesthetic appeal. Two hundred and fifty
questionnaires were distributed among staff and students residing in the major towns of the state-Awka,
Onitsha, Nnewi and Ekwulobia covering the three senatorial zones of the State. The questionnaire was
face-validated by the departmental team of lecturers and 218 were recovered! Reliability was established
using Test – retest method. The questionnaire sought information on the Growth forms of ornamentals of
Anambra State, their principal attractive features and even the little known ornamental plants that hold
sway in the wild. At the end of the study, sixty-one (61) ornamental plants were identified: 17 trees, 35
shrubs, 4 grasses, 4 forbs and 1 climber. The key attractive features were identified as follows: flowers
(13); entire plant (31); and leaves (17). Descriptive statistics (Bar charts, pie charts) were used to Represent
Growth forms and principal attractive features, while inferential statistics (test for skewness) was used to
establish whether variations in Growth forms and key attractive features were positive or negative. Results
were also reflected in percentages for easier appreciation. There are many ornamental plants in Anambra
State, many more are being introduced, but this study helped to identify outstanding wild ornamentals
that could be incorporated into the mainstream (7 trees, 2 shrubs, 2 climbers, 2 grasses and 1 forb). The
major threat to ornamentals in Anambra State is the unremitting decimation of trees generally by man
that is causing extinctions. Ornamental forbs, shrubs, grasses and climbers were not exactly under threat
because they are grown in watersheds, have high commercial appeal and can be accommodated within
and without dwelling/working places without any qualms.
Ukpaka Chukwujekwu Gratius .
Page No : 96-105
Features and Utility Indices of Common Shrubs of Anambra State, Nigeria
Shrubs are woody plants that are found mostly in exposed surfaces in Savannah and other Ecological systems. Most do
not grow beyond 8m; they are multi-branching and unlike trees, commence branching from the base. A ‘roll call’ of some
important shrubs of Anambra State, Nigeria was undertaken between the rainy and dry periods of 2018-2019. The design
employed was the descriptive survey method. Extensive physical examination and visual observation/ recordings were
carried on backed up by a questionnaire –aimed principally at ascertaining the utility indices of the encountered species.
One hundred and eighty questionnaires were distributed among staff and students residing in the three senatorial zones of
the State-Awka, Nnewi, Onitsha and Ekwulobia. 125 questionnaires were recovered. The questionnaire was facevalidated
and reliability established using the test-retest method. The 56 shrubs encountered belong to the families
Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Annonaceae and Verbenaceae. Flower
colour was dominated by yellow, white and multi-coloration. Most shrubs found in south-eastern Nigeria are relevant in
erosion control, habitat for small animals, major source of fuel wood, food, medicinals, ornamentals, animal fodder,
purification of the atmosphere and phytoremediation. Unrelenting deforestation prevalent in this clime has not spared the
shrubs but their hardiness has ensured sustainability.