Chukwuemeka Frank Raluchukwu Odumodu, Ogechukwu Caroline Onyemesili.
Page No : 1-20
Eocene-Oligocene Stratigraphy and Industrial Potentials of Lignite Deposits in Anambra State, Nigeria
The stratigraphy and geochemistry of the Eocene-Oligocene Ogwashi-Asaba Formation were studied to assess the industrial potentials of its lignite deposits in Anambra State, Nigeria. Methodology involved fieldwork and laboratory analysis. The analyses included proximate, ultimate and X-ray diffraction studies. Five lignitic seams were observed at different stratigraphic levels of the formation. Seam 1 is the lowest seam and includes lignites from Akpuchara and Ekulo streams at Oba, Enem, Ejighioku and Oruru streams at Oraifite, Obiakoloma, Amaiyi and Eze streams at Nnewi. The average moisture, dry ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon contents for seam 1 are respectively 17.20%, 25.64%, 31.84% and 25.12%. The average Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O) and Sulphur (S) contents for seam 1 are respectively 35.91%, 2.99%, 1.51%, 9.10% and 0.12%. The calorific value of seam 1 ranges from 582.23 kcal/kg to 4583.79 kcal/kg (2.44-19.19 MJ/kg) with an average value of 3209.13 kcal/kg (9.77 MJ/Kg). Seam 2, 3, 4, 5 are lignites from Oduga stream, Anthill section, Ofala stream and Nneoru stream respectively. The moisture, dry ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon contents for seam 2 are respectively 6.10-11.40%, 63.40-67.60%, 15-19.70% and 6.6-9.83%. The C, H, N, O and S contents for seam 2 are 5.50%, 3.91%, 1.44%, 13.84% and 0.75%. The calorific value of seam 2 is between 1.281.55 and 1322.42 kcal/kg (5.37-5.54 MJ/Kg). Seam 3,4,5 are very thin lignite beds of less economic importance even though their calorific values vary between 984 kcal/kg and 3082.92 kcal/kg (4.12-12.91MJ/Kg). The lignites from the Eocene-Oligocene Ogwashi-Asaba Formation have potentials for use in thermal power generation, household and other industrial uses.
Ukpaka Chukwujekwu Gratius .
Page No : 21-31
Botanical Attributes and Utility Indices of Some Grasses of Anambra State
A scientific study of the grass species of Anambra State was undertaken between January and December, 2020. The aim is a holistic
identification of the grasses and determination of their Botanical attributes and Economic relevance. Samples were collected from
Awka, Nnokwa (Anambra Central), Onitsha, Igbariam (Anambra North), Nnewi and Uli (Anambra South) to cover the three
Senatorial zones of the State. The Design of the Study is Descriptive Field survey method. Taxonomic key employed in the
identification of the grasses was basically, the tentative physiognomic – Ecological classifications of plant formations of the Earth.
Height category: Blade length and flower colour were all established directly in the field by means of meter rule, measuring tapes,
matchets, camera and visual observations. Questionnaires were also employed to capture the utility indices. At the end of the
studies, 42 grasses were identified all from the grass family-Poaceae; perennial and annual grasses were numerically almost at par
(21:21); small, average (30cm-1m), and (1.2m) very small grasses (4m) grasses; white, green and purple dominated flower colour; most grasses were useful in erosion control, as animal fodder
species, as human food, ornamentals and medicinal plants. The only grasses in Anambra State that are given a measure of regard
(respect) include: food species, fodder species, ornamental grasses and very few that has industrial relevance. Others are treated as
Ukpaka Chukwujekwu Gratius .
Page No : 31-41
Scientific Evaluation of Some Common Edible Fruits of South Eastern Nigeria
Fruits are major sources of vitamins and minerals and contain water, fiber, sugars, proteins and
phytochemicals to certain degrees. Edible fruits common to Southeastern Nigeria were subjected to
scientific evaluation to identify their intrinsic values. Questionnaire and proximate analysis were utilized to
unravel some of their relevant botanical attributes. Fruits species with the highest comparative overall
nutritive indices include: Solanum melongena, Vitex doniana, Aframomum melenguena, Dennettia tripetala,
Dialum guineense, Napoleana vogelli, Ficus capensis, Dacryodes edulis, Persea americana, Chrysophyllum
albidum, Landolphia owariensis, Ananas comosus, Spondias mombin in that order. Dominant families in
terms of numerical distribution of species include: Annonaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Anacardiaceae, Moraceae,
Sterculiaceae, Areceaceae, Burseraceae, Fabaceae in that order. Species with the most encompassing
individual Economic relevance include: Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera, Theobroma cacao, Musa
sapientum, Citrullus lanatus, Citrus species, Ananas comosus Treculia africana, Mangifera indica, Cola
acuminata, Anacardium occidentale, Nauclea diderichii, Canarium schweinfurthii, Telfeiria occidentalis
Arachis hypogea, Dennettia tripetala, Solanum melongena, Persea americana, Psidium guajava, Dialum
guineensis, Dacryodes edulis, Cucumeropsis manni et cetera. To ensure tropical trees biodiversity,
silviculture, botanical gardens, Orchards and massive tree planting campaigns must be embraced holistically
Ezeani, Uchechukwu Stephanie , Onyemesili, O. C. , Obi, G. C..
Page No : 42-57
Hydrogeochemistry and Bacteriological Assessment of Surface Water Resources Contamination in Nnewi And Environs
Detailed geological descriptions, geochemical and bacteriological analyses of surface water resources in the Nnewi area of
Anambra State formed the basis for the assessment of water resources contamination and the implications for public health.
Thirteen surface water samples were collected from the three major drainage systems in the area and subjected to microbiological
and physico-chemical analyses, to determine the coliform counts, as well as concentration of the dissolved constituents. Results of
the bacteriological analysis revealed consistently high coliform counts that ranged between 1500
c/u/ml. The observed
high coliform bacteria count in the samples clearly indicates pollution probably from sewage effluents, pit latrines and/or from
solid waste disposal. Physical and chemical analysis of the water samples show that all the samples have low pH values (5-7) and
permissible ranges of Electrical Conductivity (EC), Hardness, Total dissolved solid (T.D.S) and dissolved oxygen. Concentrations
of the major cations and anions (K, Na, CA, Mg, Fe, S, Cl, NO3) are all low and within permissible limits. However, the samples
have abnormally high concentration of sulphate (11 to 106) and Lead (.0.01mg/l). The abnormal sulphate concentration may be a
reflection of contamination from the Ameki Formation and/or poor sewage disposal, while the high lead values may be attributed
to human/industrial activities going on within the commercial town of Nnewi. Lead poisoning can affect the function and
structure of the kidney, bone, central nervous system, and hematopoietic systems. In the light of these findings, the Anambra State
Environmental Protection Agency (ANSEPA) is advised to embark on serious public awareness campaign on how to manage
wastes. This should be backed up with effective operations strategy and strong Government support. Strict laws on waste
management should be promulgated and directed at industries, hospitals, schools, markets, and residential areas within and
around the Nnewi commercial area.
Okoronkwo G. O, Ifegbo A. N. .
Page No : 58-70
The Effects of Regressors on Tensile Strength Responses of RHUS Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Composites
Due to environmental concern on synthetic fibers (such as glass, carbon, ceramic fibers, etc.) natural fibers
such as rhus, hemp, jute, kenaf, etc. are widely used. In this research work, rhus fiber reinforced polyester
matrix composites have been developed by hot compression moulding technique with varying process
parameters, such as fiber condition (untreated and alkali treated), fiber sizes (1, 2 and 4 mm) and
percentages (5%, 10% and 15% by weight). The developed rhus fiber reinforced composites were then
characterized by tensile test, and the effects of regressors on tensile strength responses analyzed. The results
show that tensile strength increases with increase in the fiber size and fiber percentage; however, after a
certain size and percentage, the tensile strength decreases again. Compared to untreated fiber, no significant
change in tensile strength has been observed for treated rhus fiber reinforcement.
Jude Chukwura Obi .
Page No : 71-84
Data Based Evaluations of the Performances of a Regression Model
The regression model is parametric and thus has a number of assumptions that necessarily should be satisfied
prior to using it. Aware that the real-world datasets hardily comply with all regression assumptions, this study
has taken into consideration, a number of datasets often encountered in the real-world. They include linear
dataset, non-linear dataset, dataset with failed normality assumptions, dataset with outliers and dataset with
correlated observations. In all, it has been shown that optimal performance of the regression model is guaranteed
on the linear dataset. Furthermore, the study importantly reveals that the use of one statistic, the Root Mean
Square Error (RMSE), say, is not enough in assessing the performance of a regression model. Adding another
statistic like the Coefficient of Determination (𝑅
) will be adequate.